Often, negotiators will set a “lower line” to protect themselves from a bad deal. In the end, the party expects the worst acceptable result. Negotiators decide, ahead of the negotiations, to reject any proposal below that line. Fisher and Ury argued that they will not use. As the number of impers is set ahead of the discussions, the number may be arbitrary or unrealistic. Signed a commitment to a rigid end result also hinders the inventiveness of creating options. Fisher, R., Ury, W. and Patton, B. (1991), Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement without Giving In, 2nd ed., Houghton Mifflin. Good agreements focus on the interests of the parties, not their positions.
Fisher and Ury explain: “Your position is something you have chosen. It was your interests that led you to make that decision. [p. 42] The definition of a position problem means that at least one party “loses” the dispute. When a problem is defined in relation to the underlying interests of the parties, it is often possible to find a solution that corresponds to the interests of both parties. To misreduce the other party`s intentions on the basis of his own fear is a common mistake; the authors describe it as a bad habit that could cost “fresh ideas towards a deal.”  The authors explain that feelings are as important as the content of the dispute during negotiation. Communication is the main aspect of the negotiations, and the authors point out three common communication problems: this global bestseller by William Ury offers a concise, progressive, proven strategy for reaching mutually acceptable agreements in all kinds of conflicts. Negotiating advice and techniques can be applied to family situations, business disputes… including international conflicts. The theories and tactics presented in Getting to Yes are based on the work of the Harvard Negotiation Project, an organization that deals with all levels of negotiation, mediation and conflict resolution.
Since its original publication in 1981, Getting to Yes has been translated into 18 languages and has sold more than one million copies in various editions. This completely revamped edition is a universal guide to the art of negotiating personal and professional disputes. It offers a concise strategy to move from all conflicts to mutually acceptable agreements. Fisher and Ury state that a good agreement is smart and effective and improves relations between the parties.